Vessel navigation lights
It is more difficult to judge speeds and distances at night or in restricted visibility. Understanding lighting configurations will enable you to take corrective action to avoid a collision.
The Marine Safety Act requires that lights must be displayed from sunset to sunrise and in times of restricted visibility during daylight hours. A vessel's lights should indicate:
- What type of vessel it is
- What the vessel is doing
- The direction that the vessel is travelling.
Examples of lighting on different types of vessels and the arcs of lights required, when underway or at anchor, to be visible can be found below.
Sailboats and rowing boats
The images represent the lights of a sailing or human powered vessel underway.
Sailing vessels underway
A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit sidelights and a sternlight. If the vessel is less than 20 m in length, the sidelights and sternlights may be combined in one lantern (tricolour lantern) carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be seen.
In addition to the sidelights and sternlight, a sailing vessel underway may exhibit at or near the top of the mast, where they can be best seen, two all-round lights in vertical line - the upper being red and the lower being green. These lights must not be exhibited in conjunction with a combined lantern (tricolour lantern) if the vessel is less than 20 m in length.
Whenever a sailing vessel is using its engine, with or without sails, it is a power-driven vessel within the meaning of the COLREGS and must act accordingly and show the appropriate shapes by day and lights by night. This means that a tricolour lantern must not be used under power.
Sailing vessels underway (not using power) less than 7m in length and boats under oars
If practicable, any of the combinations for vessels under sail, or an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light, exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.
This information is also available in a sticker-style PDF.
Powerboats under 12 m in length while underway must show:*masthead lights, a sternlight and a sidelight, or*sidelights and an all round white light.
Vessels under 7 m in length and under 7 knots
Power-driven vessels of less than 7 m in length, whose maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots, when under way, may exhibit an all-round white light. Sidelights must also be shown if practicable.
Recreational vessels at anchor
All recreational vessels must show an all-round white light while at anchor. If the vessel is drifting (underway but not making way) the vessel must display sidelights, masthead light and stern light.
A vessel of less than 7 meters in length, when at anchor not in or near a narrow channel, fairway or where other vessels normally navigate, is not required to exhibit an all-round white light. A vessel of less than 12 meters in length, when aground, is not required to exhibit an all-round white light.
For vessels under 50 m in length, a second masthead light is optional. For vessels under 12 m in length, sidelights may be a combined lantern on fore and aft centreline.
Vessel towing another vessel
When tow length is under 200 m, two masthead lights are shown (three masthead lights if over 200 m) sidelights and a sternlight. A YELLOW towing light is situated over sternlight of the towing vessel. Vessel towed shows sidelights and a sternlight. When tow length exceeds 200 m, the lights should be displayed as a diamond shape where it can best be seen.
Vessel at anchor
- Length under 50 m: one all-round light where it can best be seen, a second (lower) light at stern is optional.
- Length 50 m or more: two all-round lights, the forward one higher than the aft one.
- Length 100 m or more:shall also illuminate her decks with available working or equivalent lights.
Anchor lights and two all-round red lights. Vessel under 12 m length is not required to exhibit these lights. This signal does not mean distress or in need of help, but operators should navigate with caution.
Vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvre
(includes diving vessels)
Three all-round lights, top and bottom lights red and the middle light white. When making way through the water, vessel also shows masthead lights, sidelights and stern light. When at anchor, vessel also shows anchor lights. This signal does not indicate distress or a need for help, but operators should navigate with caution.
Vessel engaged in underwater operations or dredging
Vessel with an obstruction on one side shall, in addition to restricted ability to manoeuvre lights, carry two all-round red lights on the side of the obstruction, and two all-round green lights on the side that vessels may pass.
Vessel constrained by her draught
Power-driven vessel restricted to a narrow channel by her draught and thus unable to deviate from course. Lights for power-driven vessel under way and three all-round red lights.
Pilot vessel on duty
Two all-round lights, the top light white and the lower light red. When at anchor, shows anchor light or lights. When under way, shows sidelights and sternlight.
Vessel not under command
Two all-round red lights and, when making way through the water, sidelights and sternlight (vessels under 12 m in length are not required to comply with these lights). This signal does not mean distress, but shows inability to manoeuvre. Vessels are required to keep clear of vessels not under command.
Commercial fishing vessel trawling
Two all-round lights, the top light green and the lower light white. A rear masthead light is optional for fishing vessels under 50 m in length. Making way through water, sidelights and sternlights are shown.
Fishing vessel (other than trawling)
Two all-round lights, the top light red and the lower light white. If outlying gear extends over 150 m horizontally from fishing vessel, shows one all-round white light in direction of gear (sidelights and sternlight shown when making way through water). Making way through water, sidelights and sternlights are shown.
Vessel working in chains
Vessel shows an all-round red light at each end and an all-round green light above the red light at the forward end to indicate the direction in which the vessel is proceeding.
Vessels operating in the vicinity of the Paynesville/Raymond Island vehicular ferry must proceed with caution and keep clear of the ferry.
Installing navigational lights
The vessel preparation section of this website has guidance on how to install navigation lights.
By law, navigation lights and their installation on recreational boats are required to comply with the positioning and technical requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) - COLREGs.
|Light||Under 12 m||12 m up to 50 m||50 m and over|
|All-round lights (white, red, yellow, green)||2||2||3|
* Where the length of a vessel is 12 m or more, but less than 20 m, the masthead light must be visible for 3 nautical miles.
In inconspicuous, partly submerged vessels or objects being towed, the minimum visibility for an all-round light is 3 nautical miles.